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Klas Britannica

Klas Britannica


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Klas Britannica

De Klas Britannica Kanaal, Avrupa'nın en büyük eyaletlerinden Britannia'daydı. De belangrijkste üsleri van de vloot bevonden zich in Gesoriacum (Boulogne-sur-Mer), het hoofdkwartier van de vloot, tr Portus Dubris (Dover). [1]

Hoewel de Romeinse Historicali geen naam aan deze vloot verbonden, is toch bekend dat deze Klas Britannica Werd genoemd, vanwege de vele in Frankrijk en op het Britse eiland gevonden dakpannen, het stempel CLBR en inscripties op grafen altaarstenen ile tanıştı. [2]


İçindekiler

Işgal

Claudius komutasında Britanya'nın işgali için, Roma ordusundan 40.000 kişilik bir işgal kuvveti ve ayrıca erzak tedarik etmek üzere Büyük Britanya'ya bir filo kuruldu. Başarılı işgalden sonra orduya destek sağlamak için devam etti ve İngiliz Kanalı boyunca büyük miktarda malzeme gönderdi.

Fetih

Bu filo, Britannia'nın daha sonraki fethinde önemli bir rol oynadı. Ancak Tacitus, garip bir şekilde, işgalden yaklaşık yirmi yıl sonra, Boudican İsyanı'ndan önce Suetonius Paulinus'un Menai Boğazı'nı Anglesey'e geçişinde mevcut olmadığını belirtir. [1] Bu, kuvvetin hala Kanal bölgesinde işgal edildiğini, kuzey Galler'e kadar olan uzun yolculuk için uygun olmadığını veya o zamana kadar kara birliklerine herhangi bir yararlı destek sağlamak için çok küçük olduğunu gösteriyor.

Flavian döneminde, başlangıçta geçici bir istila filosu olarak yetiştirilen şey, Klas Britannica ve tüzükte kalıcı hale getirilmiştir. Ayrıca Flavian döneminde, Agricola valisi altında Kaledonya'yı (İskoçya) çevreledi ve 83'te doğu kıyılarına saldırdı. Bir yıl sonra filonun Orkney Adaları'na ulaştığı kaydedildi. [2]

Erken İmparatorluk döneminde donanmanın operasyonları alanında [3] ciddi deniz muhalefetinin olmaması nedeniyle - örneğin işgal geçişi denizde tartışmasız geçti - Classis'in ana rolü hem Britanya'daki orduya lojistik destek oldu, hem de orduya lojistik destek sağlamaktı. ve ayrıca daha sonraki yıllarda Almanya'da kampanya yürüten ordulara.

Demir Üretimi

Güneydoğu İngiltere'nin Weald bölgesinde, demir üretimi ile ilgili alanlarda Classis Britannica'nın damgalı kiremitleri bulunmuştur. [4] Bunların en büyüğü, Doğu Sussex, Battle yakınlarındaki Beauport Park'ta, büyük bir demir eritme tesisinin bitişiğindeki önemli bir hamamın çatısında 1000'den fazla kiremit kullanıldı. [5] Fayansların bulunduğu diğer demir üretim yerleri Wadhurst, Sussex yakınlarındaki Bardown, [6] ve Cranbrook, Kent yakınlarındaki Little Farningham Farm'dır. [7] Çinilerin bulunduğu diğer üç yerin Roma döneminde gezilebilir suya erişimi vardı ve bunlardan ikisi, Bodiam'da [8] ve Ninfield yakınlarındaki Boreham Köprüsü'nde, [9] her ikisi de Sussex'te demir işçiliğiyle ilgiliydi. Bunun anlamı, Classis Britannica'nın yalnızca demir taşımakla kalmayıp aynı zamanda üretimine de dahil olduğudur.

Aradan

Filo, arkeolojik kayıtlardan 3. yüzyılın ortalarına doğru kaybolur, ancak çağdaş kaynaklardan bu tarihten sonra varlığını sürdürdüğü bilinmektedir.

Carausius

286'da, Galya kökenli bir Roma askeri komutanı olan Carausius, ordunun komutanlığına atandı. Klas BritannicaArmorica ve Belgic Gaul kıyılarına baskın düzenleyen Frank ve Sakson korsanlarını ortadan kaldırma sorumluluğu verildi. Ancak, ele geçirilen hazineyi kendisi için tuttuğundan ve hatta korsanlara karşı harekete geçmeden önce baskınlar düzenlemesine ve zenginleşmesine izin verdiğinden şüphelenildi ve Maximian onun idamını emretti.

286'nın sonlarında veya 287'nin başlarında bu cümleyi öğrendi ve gücü gasp ederek ve kendisini Britannia ve Kuzey Galya'nın imparatoru ilan ederek yanıt verdi. İngiliz filosu, Roma İmparatorluğu'nu temsil eden bir Ren filosu tarafından saldırıya uğradığında, İngiliz filosu galip geldi ve o sırada önemli olması gerektiğini gösterdi. Ancak sözde işgalciler, yenilgileri için kötü hava koşullarını suçladılar.

Ancak 300'e gelindiğinde Britannia bir kez daha daha büyük Roma İmparatorluğu'nun bir parçasıydı ve Klas Britannica Roma imparatorluk filosu olarak restore edildi.

İmparatorluğun sonu

Roma Britanya'sının son yıllarında, filo neredeyse tamamen Büyük Britanya'nın Doğu ve Güney kıyılarını ilk korsan eylemlere karşı korumaya ve Britanya'dan birliklerin çekilmesinden kısa bir süre önce, kıyı kasabalarına ve köylerine karşı kıyı kasabalarına ve köylerine karşı Sakson baskınlarına karşı korumaya ayrılmıştı. Sakson Sahili olarak bilinir. Filo muhtemelen Sakson Kıyı Kalelerinin operasyonunda bir rol oynadı.


Inhaltsverzeichnis

Da Britannien eine Insel ist, War die Stationierung einer eigenen Provinzflotte für die Zeit der Okkupation und nachfolgender Sicherungsaufgaben unumgänglich. Kontrolle der Armee'deki tüm operierte jedoch nicht eigenständig ve unabhängig, sondern stand weitgehend. [1]

Ihr Operationsgebiet umfasste folgende Abschnitte:

  • den Atlantik nahe der britischen Küsten,
  • den Ärmelkanal,
  • ölmek Ost- und Westküste Britanniens,
  • ölmek Nordsee,
  • die schiffbaren Flusssysteme Britanniens ve
  • die kontinentale Küste bis zur Rheinmündung.

Die Aufgaben dieser Seestreitmacht waren:

  • Kontrolle der Gewässer um Britannien.
  • Kontrolle der Küstenzonen entlang der Nordsee und rund um die britischen Inseln.
  • Regelmäßiges Sammeln von Informationen und Seepatroulien.
  • Militärtransporte ve amfibi Operasyonlar.

Hauptaufgabe der römischen Flotte in britischen Gewässern war es, die Seewege von Gallien nach Britannien zu schützen ve das Landheer in Britannien mit Nachschub zu versorgen, nicht jedoch die Verteidigung der briitischen Insel im Falle'de. Aus diesem Grund, sich ihr Hauptquartier auch içinde Portus Itius/Gesoriacum (Boulogne-sur-Mer). Weiters sollte sie anfangs die römischen Legionen bei ihrem Vormarsch in Britannien unterstützen ve später die Küsten gegen frisische, fränkische und sächsische Seeräuber sichern. Auch der Geleitschutz für die von Britannien ve die Kastelle der Rheingrenze abgehenden Getreidetransporter oblag dien Seestreitkräften. Aufbau und Ausrüstung der Classis Britannica erfolgten içinde Gesoriacum, bemannt wurden die neuen Schiffe wohl zuerst mit Angehörigen der Mittelmeerflotte. Gesoriacum Einschiffungshafen nach Britannien, daha fazla bilgi için en iyi seçeneklerden biri. [2]

Die meisten Schiffe der Classis Britannica waren im Süden ve Osten der Insel kırtasiye. Ständige Patrouillen hielten auf dem Oceanus Britannicus (Nordsee ve Ärmelkanal) nach potentiellen Raubschiffen Ausschau. Auch eine araştırmacı Feindaufklärung ermöglichte es den Römern, dien Bedrohungen wirksam zu begegnen. Die Taktik hierfür war immer gleich, abfangen ve zerstören von Feindschiffen wenn sie sich der Küste näherten oder Plünderern ve Invasoren später den Rückzug abzuschneiden sofern sie schon an der Küste gelandet

Zusätzlich zu dien maritimen Aufgaben setzte die Classis Britannica ihr Personal auch bei Aufbau und Instandhaltung von Militäranlagen ve Infrastruktur in Britannien ein. Bekannt sind Einsätze beim Bau von Straßen und Hafenanlagen, drei Inschriftensteine ​​belegen auch deren Beteiligung am Bau des Hadrianswalles. [3] Es gibt auch Hinweise, dass Flottensoldaten zur Eisenverhüttung und Holzgewinnung für den Schiffsbau in Kent eingesetzt wurden. Ziegelstempel aus dem Landesinneren (Bardown, Beauport Park, Bodiam und Cranbrook) standen entweder direkt oder indirekt im Zusammenhang mit der dortigen Eisenindustrie. Wissenschaftler des Mainzer Museums für Antika Schifffahrt gehen davon aus, dass römische Kriegsschiffe içinde Friedenszeiten auch Güter nakliyeciliği ve en iyi umgerüstet wurden. Es wird daher angenommen, dass die Klas Britannica u. a. Eisenminen in der Gegend von Hastings und Battle übernahm und versandfertige'deki nakliye hizmetleri. [4]

Die Flotte setzte sich aus Kriegsschiffen (Ruderschiffen) ve Transportern (Seglern) zusammenleri. Die Kriegsschiffe waren zumeist Biremen oder Liburnen (Zweireiher), mit einer Trireme (Dreiruderer) ve Flaggschiff. Für eine größere Anzahl von Triremen (Dreiruderer) en iyi ve en iyi Bedarf da es in dien Gewässern keine gegnerischen Schiffe dieer Größe gab. Sie wären gegen die kleineren, schnellen ve wendigen Ruderboote der örtlichen Piraten auch nutzlos gewesen. Die Biremen waren mit zwei abgedeckten Ruderbänken ausgestattet, mit einem Mann pro Ruder. Das Deck sollte die Ruderer hauptsächlich vor dem Wetter und dem Seegang als vor dem Feind schützen. Die Schiffe waren ca. 30,5 m uzunluk ve 5,5 m İngiliz. Zusätzlich verfügten sie noch über Rammsporne und Ballisten. Die Mannschaft en iyi ve en iyi ve en etwa 100 Ruderern und einer Abteilung Marinesoldaten. Ab der Spätantike wurde ein kleineres Kampfschiff für den Küstenschutz eingeführt, die Navis Lusoria. Darüber hinaus wurden Kutter, Boote sowie eine Vielzahl von Handels- ve Transportschiffen eingesetzt. Romanisch-keltischer Tradition erbaut'ta Letztere wurden normalerweise. Her şeyi kontrol et, en iyileri, en iyileri, en iyileri, ausgestattet, Vorschiffe und Hecks, um hochseetauglich zu sein.

Bir Schiffsnamen sind bekannt:

Flottenoberbefehlshaber war ein vom Senat bestimmter Legat (yasal düzenleme) Der sein Kommando ganz oder teilweise ve Einen Präfekten abgeben konnte. der praefectus sınıfı war dem Statthalter der jeweiligen Provinz unterstellt. Er war aber wahrscheinlich der Autorität des britischen Legaten und nicht der des Legaten der Gallia Belçika anlaşılmaz. Die Präfekten, daha fazla bilgi için Procurators innegehabt. Einem Flottenpräfekten stand als Stabschef und Stellvertreter ein Unterpräfekt (alt praefectus) zur Seite. Unter dien rangierte noch der praepositus sınıfı, zu jeder Flotte gehörten meist zwei dieser Offiziere. Er übernahm manchmal auch selbstständige Kommandos. Daha fazla bilgi için bkz.

Als Flottillenchef wurde im Bedarfsfall ein nauarchus prensleri oder nauarchus archigybernes eingesetzt. Er entspricht in etwa dem Rang eines heutigen Konteradmirals. Im 3. Jahrhundert wurde der Rang des Flottentribunen eingeführt (tribün sınıfı). Er übernahm die Aufgaben des ersten Nauarchen. Später nannte adam ihn auch tribün liburnarum (= Tribun der Kriegsschiffe).

İsim Zeitraum
M. Maenius Agrippa L. Tusidius Campester Hadrianus
L. Aufidius Panthera um 133/140
Q. Baienus Blassianus um 140
Seks. Flavius ​​Quietus um 150
T. Varius Priscus
carausius 286 ile 293
Alektus 293 ile 296

Die Mannschaft (klasik/klasik) unterteilte sich in zwei Gruppen, das nautische Personal und die Marineinfanterie. Eine Schiffsbesatzung en iyi ve en iyi Offizieren (trierarchus = Kapitän), den Ruderern (remiler) ve einer Zenturie Marinesoldaten (manipular/milites liburnarii) zusammen. Ihre Dienstzeit bahis 26 Jahre (vgl. Legionär 20 bis 25 Jahre), ab dem 3. Jahrhundert 28 Jahre, vereinzelt weiß man auch von noch längeren Dienstzeiten. Derle Gesoriacum Stationierte ve im Alter von 65 Jahren verstorbene Marinesoldat Didio diente z. B. 35 Jahre in der Flotte. Nach ihrer ehrenvollen Entlassung (dürüst misio) wurden sie mit Geld oder Land abgefunden. In der Regel erhielten sie auch das Bürgerrecht zugesprochen, wenn sie als peregrini (= Fremde) der Flotte beigetreten waren. İlk kez Heirat war ihnen ilk andigung des aktifn Dienstes gestattet. Waffen ve Uniformen, Legionen'den bağımsız olarak. Nur Flaggen ve Insignien, bir Schiffen angebracht waren ve deren Bemalung, unterschieden die Flottenverbände voneinander. En iyi fiyatlar, en iyi fiyatlar Blautönen'deki en iyi barlar – daha fazla bilgi için, en iyi ve en iyi seçeneklerden biri. Die Mäntel waren manchmal gesäumt und man trug dazu Helme oder graue Filzkappen wie man sie z. B. Mısır gefunden şapkalı. Dolch ve Kurzschwert (Gladius) bir einen Ledergürtel mit waren Singulum befestıg. Die Marineinfanterie führte im Kampf auch einen Schild (Skutum). Die Scilde waren wohl ebenfalls mit den Insignien der Flotte bemalt in der sie dienten.

Durch zahlreiche Inschriften wurden auch Namen, militärische Laufbahn und Ränge von Angehörigen der Klas Britannica bekannt:

  • Ein Weihealtar, der als Spolie in das Osttor des Kastells in Lympne eingemauert war, wurde vom Flottenpräfekten Lucius Aufidius Pantera gestiftet und konnte auf die Zeit um 140 n. Chr. datiert werden.
  • Drei Bauinschriften wurden am Hadrianswall, içinde Kastellen von Netherby ve Birdoswald aufgefunden ve berichten von durch Flottensoldaten durchgeführte Bauarbeiten, Portikus des Getreidespeicher im Kastell Benwell'de.

Ölür seni. a. eine der wenigen Inschriften aus Britannien, öl öl Klas Britannica namentlich nennen. Auch außerhalb Britanniens tauchten diesbezügliche Inschriften auf, wie z. B. Boulogne'da, Weitere Exemplare stammen aus anderen Teilen des Reiches:

  • Unter den ersten Flottenoffizieren befand sich T. Claudius Ağustos L. Seleucus, ein Freigelassener des Kaisers Claudius (41-54), der aus dem östlichen Mittelmeerraum stammte.
  • Ein namentlich unbekannter Ritter des 2. Jahrhunderts, kommandierte nach seiner Ernennung zum Unterpräfekten der ravenatischen Flotte Pannonier, Moesier und Germanen.
  • Eine Inschrift aus Ostia bei Rom nennt einen Offizier, der zuerst im Stab der Prokuratoren in Armenien und Kappadokien diente, er erhielt später ein Kommando in der Klas Britannica und beschloss seine militärische Laufbahn als Befehlshaber der ravenatischen Flotte.
  • S. Flavius ​​Quietus wurde während der Regierungszeit des Antoninus Pius (138-161) veya Caracalla (211-217), vom Primus Pilus der Lejyon XX Valeria Victrix zum Präfekten der Klas Britannica befördert.
  • Eine Inschrift aus Arles nennt den Afrikaner Saturninus, einen Schiffskommandanten der während der Regierungszeit des Philippus Arabs (244–249) – Mitte des 3. Jahrhunderts – Flotte diente içinde. Sie ist die bislang jüngste epigraphische Quelle, die den Namen Klas Britannica (zusammen mit den Ehrennamen Filipin) überliefert. Auf ihr wird der Flottendienst auch als Teil des cursus onur bezeichnet. [5]

Der wichtigste Stützpunkt auf britannischer Seite war wahrscheinlich Portus Dubris/Dobra (Dover). Ölmek Mehrzahl der dort vorgefundenen Ziegel der einstigen römischen Festung tragen auch die Initialen CL[yardım] BR[itannica]. Stützpunkte'de Britannien lagen'de, sich das Flottenhauptquartier'den önce (donanma) Gallien'de, der Hafenstadt'ta Portus Itius (früher Gesoriacum, öl Unterstadt, und Bononia, die Oberstadt, heute Boulogne-sur-Mer, Frankreich). Die Marinesoldaten waren dort içinde einem eigenen, 12,45 ha großen Kastell kaserniert (erbaut im 2. Jahrhundert), das Platz für bis zu 4.000 Mann bot. Es war bis 296 Hauptstützpunkt carausius savaş das Flottenkommando vorübergehend içinde Portus Adurni untergebracht) und wurde dann endgültig in das Kastell Rutupiae (auch Portus Ritupisi Richborough, İngiltere) verlegt.

Antiker Adı Nächstgelegener Ort
Anderitum Pevensey bei Eastbourne,
Sachsenküste, İngiltere
Portus Adurni Portsmouth, Sachsenküste, İngiltere
Arbeia South Shields, Nachschubdepot/Hafen f.d. Hadrianswall, İngiltere
Alauna Küstenschutz Cumbria, Maryport, İngiltere
Branodunum Brancester, Sachsenküste, İngiltere
Castra Exploratorum Netherby, Hadrianswall, Marinedepot ohne Hafenanlage
Glannoventa Ravenglass, Küstenschutz Cumbria, İngiltere
Noel Baba Bitterne bei Southampton, Sachsenküste, İngiltere
kızılcık bei Edinburgh am Firth of Forth, İngiltere
Deva Legionslager Chester, İngiltere
duba ah Portus Dubris Dover, Sachsenküste, İngiltere
Gariannonum Burgh Kalesi, Great Yarmouth,
Sachsenküste, İngiltere
gereksiz Kastell Caister-on-Sea, Great Yarmouth,
Sachsenküste, İngiltere
Glevum Gloucester, İngiltere
Isca Silurum Lejyonlar, Caerleon
bei Newport, İngiltere
Lemanae, ah Portus Lemanis Lympne, Sachsenküste, İngiltere
londinyum Londra, Ingiltere
petuarya, ah Pretorio Brough-on-Humber,
İngiltere wahrscheinlich der Hafen von Eboracum (York)
Pons Aelius Newcastle, İngiltere
Kastell des Hadrianswalls am Tyne
Portus Magnus Portsmouth, İngiltere
regulbiyum Reculver, Sachsenküste, İngiltere
Segonsiyum Caernarvon, Galler
Gesoriacum (denizci/Hauptquartier) Boulogne-sur-Mer, Frankreich
Suçlu, später auch als Portus Namnetumu bekannt Nantes, Frankreich
Portus Arkası Ambienteuse, Frankreich
Venedik, später auch als Dariorigum bekannt Vannes, Sachsenküste, Frankreich

Zeitenwende bis 2. Jahrhundert Bearbeiten

Vorläufer der Classis Britannica war vielleicht die von Gaius Iulius Caesar 56 v. Chr. im Krieg gegen die Gallien'deki Veneter aufgestellte Flotte. Deren Einheiten wurde in den Jahren 55 bis 54 v. Chr. auch für seine beiden Landungen içinde Britannien eingesetzt. Bei den antika Klas Britannica. Cassius Dio streicht jedoch die wichtige Rolle der Flotte während der Invasion von 43 n. Chr. heraus. Laut einer Passage bei Florus soll in Gesoriacum von 12'den 9'a v. Chr. eine Flotte aufgebaut worden sein. Sie sollte ursprünglich die Operationen des Drusus gegen die Germanen unterstützen. Derzeit gibt es jedoch keine Hinweise auf die damalige Existenz einer stehenden Flotte. Es ist daher wahrscheinlicher, dass die Aufstellung der Klas Britannica auf die fehlgeschlagene Caligula-Expedition im Jahr 39 oder auf die Vorbereitungen für die Invasion Britanniens im Jahr 43 zurückzuführen ist. [6]

Nachdem Cunobelinus, König der Catuvellaunen, von 37 bis 41 das südöstliche Britannien besetzt ve damit die Römer provoziert hatte, holte Kaiser Claudius 43 zum entscheidenden Schlag gegen die Briten aus. Der Feldherr Aulus Plautius Landete mit seiner Flotte vier Legionen in Kent an um mit ihnen anschließend weiter nach Norden vorzustoßen. Daha fazla bilgi Korsan, Kanal'dan Warenverkehr zwischen Britannien ve dem übrigen Reich empfindlich störte, savaş Kaiser Claudius gezwungen, eine eigene Seestreitmacht für diese Region aufzustellen. Auch bis zur endgültigen Eroberung eines Großteils der Insel spielte die Classis Britannica noch eine wichtige Rolle, amfibi operasyonlar das Landheer wirksam unterstützte.

Erstmals literarisch erwähnt wird sie im Zuge der Revolte des Iulius Civilis in den Jahren 69–70 n. Chr. Dieser'de Zeit brachte die britische Flotte die Legio XIV nach Niedergermanien. Viele ihrer Einheiten wurden aber bei einem Überraschungsangriff der Cananefaten zerstört. Durch Verrat fielen auch 24 Einheiten der Rheinflotte im Jahre 69 içinde die Hände der aufständischen Bataver. Almanya'da Almanya'da, Almanya'da, Almanya'da, Almanya'da Flotte zusammen, deren Aufgabe darin bestand, die gallischen Getreidetransporte für die Armee in Germanien an Maas-, Rhein- und Scheldemündung abzufangen. Zu ihrer Bekämpfung mussten auch britannische Einheiten herangeführt werden. Weder der britannischen noch der Rheinflotte gelang es aber entscheidende Erfolge bei der Bekämpfung des Aufstandes zu erringen. [7]

Im Jahre 78, Nordschottland'da Statthalter Gnaeus Iulius Agricola mit seinen Feldzug gegen die Kaledonier'de başladı. Im Sommer 82 Meuterte eine Kohorte der Usipeter, daha fazla bilgi için bkz. Die Flüchtigen umsegelten Britannien, erlitten aber Schiffbruch ve fielen Sueben und Friesen içinde die Hände, die teilweise als Sklaven verkauften. [8] Die Operationen der britischen Flotte während eines Feldzuges werden am besten während der Kampagne von Agricola beschrieben. Sie war ein integraler Bestandteil der Armee bei ihrem Vordringen nach Nordbritannien und wurde als Versorger, aber auch bei Kämpfen eingesetzt. Zwischen 82 und 84 fanden im Rahmen ölür Feldzuges auch zahlreiche Vorstöße der Flotte bis an die Ostküste Schottlands statt. Tacitus berichtet u. a., dass die Marineinfanteristen bevorzugt für Überraschungsangriffe verwendet wurden. [9] Im Jahre 84 umsegelte Agricola während einer Flankenschutzoperasyon auch das Promunturium Calidonia (Nordspitze Schottlands, Duncansby Head'i selamlayın). Der römische Historiker Tacitus berichtet içinde seiner Biographie des Agricola, dass dieser mit der römischen Flotte auch die britischen Inseln umfahren ve dabei endgültig die Inselgestalt Britanniens bewiesen habe. [10] Während der Fahrt seien unter anderem die orcades (Orkney-Inseln) Reich'ın temel bilgileri. Die Classis Britannica unterstützte, Ostküste Schottlands vorstoßenden Legionen auch mit Nachschub'dan. Paralel konum Agricola seine Schiffe an der West- und Nordküste zur Aufklärung ein. Yani wurden neben den Orkneys auch die Hebriden und auch ein Teil der kış uykusu (irischen) Küste erkündet. Dieser Feldzug war für die britische Flotte daher auch eine große nautische Leistung, da sie sich bei der Umrundung der britischen Insel, nördlich von Schottland, sowie bei den die Orkneys in biswkrekreuzgäbekantenten. Tacitus hebt dabei auch den Wert einer schlagkräftigen Flotte hervor. In seinem Bericht über Agricolas Feldzüge lobt er deren Taktik noch vor Eintreffen der Landstreitkräfte überraschend anzugreifen, die Küsten zu verwüsten und plündern, wodurch sich bei den Briten der Eindruck verstärkte, d. [11]

Kaiser Hadrian sicherte anlässlich seines Besuches auf der Insel im Jahre 122 die Eroberungen seiner Vorgänger weiter ab und ließ überall in der Provinz die Befestigungen erneuern oder neue Anlagen errichten. Beim größten dieser Projekte, dem Hadrianswall, beteiligten sich auch Angehörige der Flotte. Über diese Hinweise hinaus ist wenig über die Arbeit der Flotte in den nachfolgenden zwei Jahrhunderten bekannt. Truppen ve deren Versorgung ve Ausrüstung ve Nahrungsmitteln tarafından denenen Kanalflotte gewährleistete hauptsächlich den Ziegeleien ve Eisengruben hinzukam tarafından denenmiştir. Kampfverband'ın en büyük ve en güvenli ulaşım araçları.

3. Jahrhundert Bearbeiten

Die Classis Britannica rückte ilk 196 daha geniş tarihçe Fokus, als der britische Statthalter Clodius Albinus gegen seinen Thronrivalen Septimius Severus vorging. Olağandışı, hızlı bir şekilde Flotte auf der Seite des Albinus standı, her şey dahil, her şey dahil. Aber sie dürfte - nach der Niederlage des Albinus in der Schlacht von Lugdunum zeitweise içinde Ungnade gefallen sein. Jahren 208 bis 210 führte Kaiser Septimius Severus einen äußerst verlustreichen Feldzug gegen die Caledonier und Maeataer in Nordschottland'da. Severus überquerte den Ärmelkanal mit einem riesigen Heer, daha fazla bilgi için tıklayınız. Die Flotte unterstützte später das Landheer, Indem sie seine Flanke von Onun sicherte und den Nachschubtransport organisierte bakın. 50.000 Mann artı 7.000 Marinesoldaten ve Seeleute ein. Um den Nachschub zu sichern wurden das Kastell und der Hafen von Arbeia (Güney Kalkanları) büyük ölçüde. Die Getreidespeicher wurden z. B. um den Faktor zehn erhöht. Als Severus enorme Streitmacht nach Norden zog, verheerte die Flotte wieder die feindlichen Küsten, um ihre Bewohner zu terörisieren ve Landepunkte zu sichern. Cramond am Forth und Carpow am Tay wurden Stützpunkte eingerichtet'te. Einige Schiffe drangen dabei auch wieder bis zum nördlichsten Punkt der britischen Inseln vor, Seegefechte fanden aber nicht statt. Daha fazla bilgi için bkz. Reihe von Münzemissionen geehrt, Marinemotive zeigten. Britannien'de Nachfolger des Severus verfolgten danach in Britannien keine offene Expansionspolitik mehr, gazoz die Classis Britannica nun wieder primär als Küstenwache, Getreide- und Versorgungstransporte herangezogen wurde. Die Flotte en iyi İngiltere'de Stützpunkte'de çalışıyor Jahrhunderts nach und nach aufgegeben haben, der Rest der Flotte in Bononia'da hatte wohl noch etwas länger Bestand. Eine in Arles gefundene Inschrift erwähnt den Saturninus, der um 240 Trierarch in der Classis Britannica savaşında. Sie bestätigt, dass zur Zeit der Herrschaft des Philippus Arabs (244–249) noch eine Einheit mit diesem Namen mevcut. Sie operierte von Bononia aus, dessen Kastell und Marinebasis anscheinend bis in diese Zeit genutzt wurden. Jahren'de Während der Barbareninvasionen 256 bis 275 wurden die Anlagen der Flotte jedoch zerstört ve ebenfalls aufgegeben. [12]

Ab 275 bekämpften die Seestreitkräfte verstärkt sächsische und fränkische Karperschiffe, plündernd die Kanal- und Ostküste Britanniens heimsuchten'den daha sonra. Jahrhundert zur Gründung von neuen Küstenkastellen beiderseits des Kanals (Sachsenküste), zu deren Besatzungen auch Marineeinheiten gehört haben müssen. Diese waren mit kleineren ve schnellen Schiffen ausgestattet worden, mit denen adam die Plünderer içinde ihren wendigen Ruderschiffen besser bekämpfen konnte. 286 erhielt der Flottenpräfekt M. Aurelius Musaeus Carausius den Auftrag, daha fazla bilgi için Korsan Korsanlığı im Kanal und auf der Nordsee zu bekämpfen. Für diese Aufgabe wurden von ihm auch zahlreiche ehemalige frankische Piraten içinde seine Flotte aufgenommen. Der Panegyricus für Constantius Chlorus erwähnt eine „. Flotte, die früher die Gallier beschützte. “, Carausius durch den Bau einer „. Vielzahl von Schiffen. “ erheblich vergrößert hatte, was darauf hindeutet, dass noch ein Marineverband in Gesoriacum/Bononia (Boulogne-sur-Mer) kırtasiye savaşı, aber seine operativen Kapazitäten wohl nicht mehr ausreichte, um die zu be zuberfälle. Der Bau der Sachsenküstenkastelle im Osten İngiltere'nin en büyük şelaleleri Schwächung der Flotte zusammenhängen. Ben Zuge einer angeblichen Unterschlagung von Kriegsbeute kam es jedoch kel zum Konflikt mit dem Kaiser des Westens Maximian. Dies hatte zur Folge, dass sich Carausius von seinen größtenteils sadık Truppen und mit ihm verbündeten Franken zum Imperator Britanniens ausrufen ließ. Nordwesten des Reiches verfügte, konnte er nicht nur ganz Britannien, sondern bald auch einen nicht unbeträchtlichen Teil der gallischen Kanalküste unter seine Kontrolle getirmek. Zur Niederschlagung der letzten großen Kullanım des 3. Jahrhunderts savaş daher eine neue und schlagkräftigere Flotte vonnöten. Neu ernannte Caesar des Westens, Constantius Chlorus, konnte 293 Bononia einnehmen und wieder als Basis für seine Flottenrüstung nützen. Carausius wurde deswegen kel darauf von seinem Quästor Allectus ermordet. Im Frühjahr 296 war die neu aufgestellte römische Flotte Gallien'deki aramalar ve konnte zum Kampf gegen die britischen Abtrünnigen auslaufen. Auch an der Seinemündung wurde unter dem Kommando des Prätorianerpräfekten Asclepiodotus ein Expeditionskorps nach Britannien eingeschifft. Völlig unbehelligt (es herrschte trübes Wetter und die Mehrzahl der britischen Geschwader lagen bei der Vectis Insula (Isle of Wight) auf der Lauer) Almanya'nın en büyük şehri. In der darauffolgenden Entscheidungsschlacht zwischen Asclepiodotus ve Allectus konnte Ersterer diese für sich entscheiden. Ohne weitere Zwischenfälle zog auch Constantius Chlorus içinde Londinium ein und ließ sich anschließend als Befreier Britanniens feiern.

Die Flotte wurde aber nicht nur für Kämpfe, sondern auch als Mittel der Machtdemonstration eingesetzt. Über das Ende des 3. Jahrhunderts hinaus ist die Existenz eines Geschwaders von Kriegsschiffen unsicher. Wenn überhaupt noch eine größere Flotte nach der Rückeroberung Britanniens unterhalten wurde, beschränkte sie sich wohl auf Frachtschiffe, Liane-Mündung lagen'de öldü.

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Constans, Kaiser im Westen, nutzte ab 343 Bononia ausgangsbasis für einen Britannienfeldzug. Almanya'nın en büyük ve en güvenli ulaşım araçlarından biri olan Almanya'nın en büyük ulaşım araçları arasında ulaşım ve ulaşım hizmetleri 359. Lanet olsun vorhandene Ladekapazität schlagartig um 200 Prozent. Nun connte wieder britannisches Getreide içinde großem Umfang an die Rheingrenze verbracht werden. Die Transporte verliefen in der Regel ohne Probleme, daha fazla sorun, daha fazla bilgi için bkz. Seeherrschaft im Kanal an sich zu reißen. Michel Reddé zufolge, Carausius'un gasp ettiği yer, Stationierung eines neuen Kriegsflottenkontignents auf beiden Seiten des Kanals verhindert. 360 verschiffte der Heermeister Lupicinus von Bononia aus Interventionstruppen nach Rutupiae (Richborough), um eingefallene Skoten und Pikten wieder zurückzuwerfen. Laut Ammianus Marcellinus zog er im Hochwinter nach Bononia und beschaffte dort ". genügend Schiffe die alle seine Männer tragen konnten" Ab 364 musste sich die Flotte ständig mit ihnen auseinandersetzen, da sie nun auch startnen von Onun anzugreifen'ine bakın. Britanniens noch zusätzlich mit Kastellen oder baute schon vorhandene um. Britanniam başına litoris Saxonici gelir (Britannien'de Graf der Sachsenküste) der neben Infanterie- und Kavallerieabteilungen wohl auch die Marineeinheiten unter seinem Kommando hatte. Erste Signalstationen, Kastelle und befestigte Häfen hatte Carausius bereits nach 286 errichtet. Um Pikten ve Skoten (barbarik komplo) zu bekämpfen, entschloss sich Kaiser Valentinian I. 367 mit Hilfe von in Bononia liegenden Schiffen eine Müdahalelerarmee unter dem Befehl des Magister militum Flavius ​​Theodosius nach Rutupiae überzusetzen. Kriegsschiffe bekämpften danach auch noch erfolgreich die Sachsen. Flavius ​​Vegetius Renatus, en Chronist, der seine Werke am Ende des 4. Jahrhunderts verfasste, erwähnt, dass zu dieser Zeit noch reguläre Flottenverbände mevcut. Er beschreibt getarnte Ruderschiffe (Lusoria) Invasion und Infiltrasyon ile ilgili olarak, en son ve en önemli bilgilerdir. Tatsächlich erwähnt ölür Notitia Dignitatum eine ganze Reihe von Marinegeschwadern, z. B. enine Klas Sambrica in Gallien, die wahrscheinlich in den Flussmündungen der Somme und Canche stationiert war, oder von Flottillen (Barcarii) im Norden Englands. [13]

Wie bereits erwähnt, verschwindet die Flotte schon Mitte des 3. Jahrhunderts n. Chr. aus den historischen Quellen, aber die primäre Ursache hiefür ist umstritten. Eine ganze Reihe von bedeutenden historischen Ereignissen könnten dafür ausschlaggebend gewesen sein. Eines davon ist die Auseinandersetzung um die Herrschaft zwischen Senatoren und Militärs nach der Ermordung von Severus Alexander im Jahr 235 n. Chr., die die sog. „Reichskrise des 3. Jahrhunderts“ auslösen sollte. Ein weiteres könnte das von Postumus gegründete Gallische Sonderreich gewesen sein, das von 260 bis 274 bestand. Schließlich wäre dann noch die Usurpation des Carausius zu nennen, die das Ende der Flotte herbeigeführt haben könnte. Jedes von ihnen wäre geeignet gewesen, die Classis Britannica auf der falschen Seite der Geschichte landen zu lassen. Eventuell erfolgte ihre Auflösung auch im Zuge der allgemeinen Wirtschaftskrise die das Reich zu dieser Zeit erfasst hatte. Aber auch die Unzulänglichkeit der alten, "schwerfälligen" Flotte im neuen Kontext der Piratenbekämpfung könnte einer der Gründe für ihre Zerschlagung in kleinere und flexiblere Einheiten (evt. als Teil der örtlichen Kastellgarnisonen) gewesen sein. Über das Schicksal der spätrömischen Seestreitkräfte im Kanal ist mangels schriftlicher Quellen nichts bekannt. [14]


Classis Britannica

Lorsque l’on évoque les usurpateurs de Britannia, cette terre « fertile en tyrans », les noms de la ville antique de Boulogne-sur-Mer, Gesoriacum ou Bononia, apparaissent régulièrement comme le point de passage, principal sinon exclusif, des troupes des prétendants au pouvoir ou de celles qui les combattent. Quelles traces ces usurpations et ces opérations guerrières ont elles laissées dans la topographie urbaine de la ville portuaire ? Ont-elles influé les fonctions militaires, commerciales et politiques de l’antique Gesoriacum/Bononia ? L’archéologie boulonnaise des dernières décennies, confrontée aux sources textuelles, dévoile progressivement l’histoire d’une cité profondément reliée à celle de la Britannia. Elle démontre, au-delà des crises politiques et militaires successives, le grand dynamisme des échanges entre les deux rives du détroit, du Ier au IVe siècle de notre ère. Elle vient préciser la chronologie de la classis Britannica, la flotte de Bretagne, dont le siège était installé à Boulogne, et qui fut souvent associée à ces usurpations. L’archéologie atteste également l’impact particulier des épisodes de Clodius Albinus et de Carausius sur la ville, si ce n’est par l’intervention directe de ces usurpateurs, en tout cas par les bouleversements que ces événement sont induits.

Magisterská diplomová práce ´Římské vojenské majáky v Británii: Historie a archeologické pozůstatky´ se zabývá specializovaným druhem staveb v římské architektuře – majáky, lat. phari, a zvláště se zaměřuje na majáky postavené v anglickém hrabství Kent v lokalitě přístavu Dover. Práce je rozdělena do dvou hlavních částí. První se věnuje majákům v obecné rovině, snaží se postihnout jejich definici, věnuje se ve zkratce jejich historii, snaží se shrnout základní známé informace o majácích z konstrukčního hlediska a věnuje se i jejich signalizační činnosti. Dále je tato část zaměřena na známé římské majáky a zaobírá se také zobrazováním majáků v římském umění. Střed této práce tvoří kapitola věnující se římskému přístavu Dover a tam objeveným pevnostem Classis Britannica, které se stavbou majáku úzce souvisí. Druhá část této diplomové práce se detailně věnuje doverským majákům. Zaměřuje se hlavně na dochovaný východní pharos a mapuje jeho stavební historii, prováděné výzkumy, popis, interpretaci a také se snaží maják srovnávat s jinými dle autora vhodnými stavbami. Závěr práce je pak krátce věnován památkové ochraně ve Velké Británii a zvláště se zaměřuje na doverský maják jako významně chráněnou památku.

Master's thesis "Roman military lighthouses in Britain: The history and archaeological remains" are dealing with a specialized type of buildings in Roman architecture - lighthouses, lat. Phari, and especially focusing on the lighthouses built in the English county of Kent at the Port of Dover. The work is divided into two main parts. The first is devoted to lighthouses in general, trying to capture their definition, deals with their history in a nutshell, to summarize the basic information known about lighthouses from the structural point of view and focuses on their signalling activity. In addition, this section focuses on the well-known Roman lighthouses and mentions also displaying lighthouses in Roman art. The center of this work contains the chapter devoted to the Roman port of Dover and to the forts Classis Britannica discovered there which are closely related to the construction of the lighthouse. The second part of this thesis is devoted on Dover´s lighthouses in detail. It focuses mainly on the eastern Pharos preserved and maps its construction history, conducting research, description, interpretation and also trying to compare it with other appropriate buildings according to the author. The conclusion is then briefly dedicated to the protection of historical monuments in The United Kingdom, and especially focusing on the Dover lighthouse as significantly protected monument.


An ignominious naming

It is amid these campaigns that the fleet is first called the Classis Britannia, in the context of a military disaster on the continent. The background to this ignominious first naming was the Batavian Revolt of Gaius Julius Civilis on the Rhine frontier in the modern Netherlands in AD 69/ 70.

Tacitus in his Tarihler says that the fleet was utilised to transport legio XIV Gemina from Britain to the Rhine estuary, there to threaten the Batavian heartland.

The legionary commander, Fabius Priscus, then marched his legion against the Nervii and Tungri tribes who had proved so troublesome almost 130 years earlier to Julius Caesar during his Gallic campaigns. However, the legate appears to have left his fleet in a vulnerable situation with no guards.

The neighbouring Cannenefates tribe decided to take advantage of this and launched an assault that saw the majority of the fleet burned or captured. Fortunately it was quickly rebuilt and back in action around the islands of Britain.


The Classis Britannica

Perhaps the best known of all the of Roman fleets, it was created for the invasion of Britain and saw a long and interesting history out on the fringes of Empire.

NS Classis Britannica was created in 41 AD, in the Port of Gesoriacum - (modern Boulogne-sur-Mer). This fleet's purpose was to provide support for the 43 AD invasion of Britain. Gesoriacum, the original base was the port of embarkation of the invasion force which was 'led' by Emperor Claudius (from behind in Rome) and General Aulus Plautius (from the front in Britain). After the successful crossing of the Occeanus Britannicus, the English Channel, The 40,000 men of the legions made landings on the Kent coast at Richborough, 1 Lympne 2 and Dover, 3 establishing a beech head of about 45 miles wide. Soon after they moved east andestablished a supply base at Noviomagus (modern Bosham) Sussex. The fleet was again in action supporting the crossing of the Thames, and providing an escort for Emperor Claudius in 46 AD when he visited Britain, transporting his Praetorian Guard, and the elephants for his triumphal entry into Camulodunum, modern Colchester.

Between the years 84 - 86 AD, home port was transferred to either Rutupiae (modern Richborough) or Dubris (modern Dover) the most probable of the two ports. 4 The British fleet started to establish bases around Britain such as Portus Adurni - Portchester, Anderida - Pevensey, Portus Lemanis - Lympne and a fleet anchorage at each end of Hadrian's Wall at Maia - Bowness and Arbeia - South Shields. In the push north of 83 AD, the fleet carried out raids along the eastern coast of Scotland in support of the advancing legions. The fleet also accomplished the circumnavigation of Britain, discovering the Orkneys in the process. During the reign of Constantine I this system became an independent command referred to as the Litus Sxonicum the Saxon shore defences, with bases located at shore forts around the coast. The commander of the Litus Sxonicum was given the title of Comes Litoris Saxonice Britanniam, veya Comes Litoris Saxonici Britannia both ment Count of the Saxon Shore.

The province of Britain was isolated enough that in 286 AD, a commander of the Classis Britannica, named Carausius, to break with Rome and declare himself emperor of Britannia and northern Belgic Gaul. This was when he was accused of conspiracy with pirates from Germany and France. 5 It is an indication of the formidable strength of the British fleet that it defeated a combined fleet from the bases in Germany France that was sent against it. In 296 AD the revolt was ended when Carausius was assassinated by a subordinate named Allectus this allowed the opportunity for an imperial force to make a landing. By Britain was regained by Constantius in 296-7 AD, and was fully pacified and reinstated in the empire by 300 AD.

The number of forts and their locations gives us a good indication of the threats to the province that existed at the time. The main dangers were to the section of the east coast from Hampshire to the eastern end of Hadrian’s wall, the bases listed are as follows.

Classis Britannica and the Saxon Shore Forts

These bases are known as the Saxon shore forts, there is a distinction between the Classis Britannica and the Saxon shore forts. This distinction can be explained by examining the development of the role of the of the Classis Britannica during the time the Romans held the province of Britain.

The Classis Britannica was the naval and military force that was responsible for the security of the entire coastline of the Roman occupied province of Britannia. The Classis Britannica was supported by the land based forces of the legions from the inland forts throughout the province. This force focused its defensive efforts on the east coast owing to the activity of raiders from mainland Europe. The division between the east and western coasts became such that the east coast became known as the Wash Solent Limes 6 . A Roman limes is a unified defensive system situated on a frontier, performing the same duty as Hadrian’s wall in the north, there was however no need for a wall as the coast served that purpose admirably. There were also nine strong forts at strategic points along the coast these forts were listed in an official Imperial document known as the Notitia Dignitatum. They developed into the Saxon Shore Fort system, the bases located from Hampshire to the eastern end of Hadrian’s wall working south to north the first fort was,

    Portus Adurni -
    Portchester Castle. The garrisons mentioned in the Notitia Dignitatum were the Numerus Exploratorum and the Numerus Exploratorum Habitanco or The Company of Scouts from Habitancum both units were auxiliary scouts.
    Working north along the coast the next fort in the chain was,Anderida – Pevensey.
    The original garrison appears to have been the Numerus Abulcorum a company of auxiliaries from Spain.Portus Lemanis – Lympne.
    From the fourth century the garrison of the fort was the Numerus Turnacensium.Dubris – Dover
    The garrison was provided by the Milites Tungrecani or the men of the Tungrecani.Rutupiae – Richborough.
    The garrison was sections of Legio II Augusta the Second Augustan Legion.Regulbium – Reculver.
    From the third century it garrisoned by the Cohors I Baetasiorum auxiliaries recruited in the Rhineland. This unit was posted here from Maryport on the Cumbrian coast.Othona – Bradwell-on-Sea. The garrison was the Numerus Fortensium or the Company of Brave Men.Gariannonum – Burgh Castle.
    The garrison was the Equites Stablesiani Gariannoneses or Horsemen from the Stables at Gariannum.Branodunum – Brancaster.
    The Celtic name of which was Fort of Bran. The original garrison appears to have been the cohors I Aquitanorum a company of auxiliary infantry from the area north of the Pyrenees and later Equites Dalmatae Brandodunenses. A unit of auxiliary horse from Dalmatia, the unit took the title Brandodunenses from the name of the fort.

The term Numerus refers to an army unit of 200 to 400 men normally auxiliary, the number varied depending upon the duties of the unit.

There were also forts located at Bradwell, Caister and Walton situated at the mouths of the Rivers Orwell, Deben and Stour off Felixstowe, both forts are now lost due to coastal erosion. Further forts were at Carisbrooke and possibly at Bembridge on the Isle of Wight as this provides a fine sheltered anchorage on the eastern side of the island. There was also a base at Clausentum near Bittern on the outskirts of Southampton, Cardiff, Holyhead and Topsham.


On the vulnerable northwest coast there is evidence of a chain of five watchtowers located at Filey, Scarborough, Ravenscar, Goldsborough and Huntclif this coastal defence relied upon the deployment of forces by road. Troops from Lindum, modern Lincoln could reach the area on Ermine Street via the Roman ferry 7 across the Humber estuary from Wintringham to Brough on Humber. All the forts appear to have been linked by signal stations and watchtowers to local garrisons and legionary garrisons such as the ones at Linum and Ebuacum modern York and Corstopitum modern Stangate located on Hadrian’s Wall.

The forts in Britain were supported by a chain of forts along the coast of France from Nantes to Oudenburk in Belgium, this included a base on Alderney on the Channel Islands. The bases on mainland Europe were also listed in the Notitia Dignitatum and are as follows.

    Manatias - Nantes. The garrison was the Milites Superventores, this was an auxiliary unit of light cavalry.Benetis – Vannes. The garrison was the Milites Mauri Beneti this was a mixed unit of light auxiliary cavalry.Blabia – Hennebont. The garrison was the Milites Carronensii.Osismis – Brest. The garrison was the Milites Martensii Mauri Osismiaci, this was probably a unit of light auxiliary cavalry.Aletum – Saint-Malo. The garrison was the Milites Martensii.Abricantis – Avranches
    The garrison listed was the Milites Dalmati a unit from modern Dalmatia.Constantia – Coutances. The garrison mentioned was the Legio I Flavia Gallicana Constantia or Reliable Flavian Legion of Gaul. This was an infantry unit with auxiliary cavalry support.Rotomagus – Rouen. The garrison was the milites Ursariensii.Grannona – Port-en-Bessin. The garrison was the Cohors Prima Nova Armoricana.

All units listed as the garrison in the forts were listed in official documents such as the Notitia Dignitatum.

Although not listed in the Notitia Dignitatum the final fort in the chain appears to have been Oudenburk in Belgium. There is little remaining evidence however it is reasonable to expect that the forts would have been connected by signal stations and watchtowers with supporting garrisons as in Britain.

Possible locations of other Bases

The Classis Britannica was likely to have had more bases then those listed in the Notitia Dignitatum. There is remaining evidence of some bases, and the locations of other remaining forts and settlements, together with the geography of the British coast it is possible to suggest the most likely locations bases, these may have been at the following places.

The West Coast

Bowness on Solway is guarded by a fort located at Bowness (Maia) this is the most easterly of the forts on Hadrian’s wall. A possible anchorage ships has been recorded in the area. It is probable that the fort at Bowness opreated a system of mutual support to the other base on the Solway Firth,which was the fort at Kirkbride (Portus Trucculensis). This installation was large enough to be a base, and was large enough to provide a possible base or anchorage for ships supporting any advance north of Hadrian's Wall.

The estuary of the River Ellen which was guarded by the fort at Aluna, modern Maryport. A possible anchorage in the estuary of the River.

The estuary of the rivers Esk, Mite and Irt there was a settlement at Ravenglass (Glannoventa). This settlement was important enough to be guarded by a Legionary fort with a garrison of 1,500 horse and foot troops. As Glannoventa also means The Shore Market this indicates the settlement was also a trade centre. Although not listed in the Notitia Dignitatum evidence suggests this was a base.

The estuary of the River Dee, was guarded by a Legionary fort garrisoned by the Legio XX Valeria Victrix at Chester (Deva) this was a large city as important as London and vulnerable to raiding parties from the Isle of Man and Ireland. A probable navy base and port.
The estuary of the River Severn, guarded by a forts constructed at Cardiff and Caerleon (Iscia Augusta). On the river Usk a Legionary fort was constructed by the Legio II Augusta. And the settlement and port of Abona modern Bristol was also established. The estuary was the access to the ports at Caerleon and Bristol on the mouth of the River Avon and given the nature of the settlements and trade activity in the area most unlikely that a base of some sort or anchorage would not have been established.

There is a Roman site that has been lost to the sea located on the north bank Camel estuary near Rock. There is speculation that this was a west coast equivalent of a Saxon Shore Fort. There is no absolute proof of this as the site has been buried beneath the sands of the estuary.

The Channel And East Coast

Exeter (Isca Dumnoniorum) Dumnonii Tribal Capital, is situated on the river Exe just three miles from the major port of Topsham. The port of Topsham was originally intended to provide a supply port for the II legion Augusta based in Exeter. The port was situated on the Fosse Way which ran north from Exeter and provided the settlement with a driect link to London and Lincoln. Owing to the importance of this settlement it is inconceivable that this was at least a possible anchorage, probably a base linked to the legionary garrison.Poole was established by the II legion Augusta before they moved on to Exeter. This was a fort and a Roman port that traded with Gaul, the exports were local sea salt Shale and Limestone. If you look at a map you will see this is a wonderful natural harbour and a very strong candidate for a fleet anchorage.Harwich on the estuaries of the Stour and Orwell rivers these were a major route inland via the rivers in the area. This indicates there was considerable activity on the waterways in the area. A legionary fort, part of the coast stood at Walton on the northern shore of the estuary. This was an important settlement that would have needed protection from raiders and would have probably been a fleet anchorage.

NS Humber estuary was the site of a settlement on the northern shore 7 miles to the west of Hull. This site was Peturia there may have been a port sited on the Humber to serve this important settlement. There is a reasonable chance that this may have been the site of a fleet base or anchorage.Whitby (Dictium) was listed in the Notitia Dignitatum as the site of a Roman (signal) station. There is a post Roman referance to Whitby as Streanæshealh or lighthouse bay. This could indicate the signal station was still standing or in use. There was also a fort recorded in the area. It is reasonable to conclude that a base of some sort could have been established.

NS Tees estuary and the area around Catcote overlooking the estuary has evidenced of both bronze age and Roman settlement. The area has excellent farming land and after the completion of Hadrian’s wall trade in the area developed. The settlement developed into an important (if minor) trading port it was possible there was an anchorage or a base linked to a garrison in the area possible anchorage.

1 The main landing point was Richborough the 9th Legion Hispana and 14th Legion Gemina Martia Victrix landed here, with Plautius in command.

2 Lympne was the destination for the second division, the Legion II Augusta, with Vespasian in command.

3 Dover was the final landing point, for the 20th Legion Valeria Victrix, the commander of which was not recorded.

4 However there is a possibility that Gesoriacum remained the base on the coast of Gaul as it was much the larger of the three. 5 And sentenced to death by Rome. 6 By modern scholars as the Roman name for the for this defensive system if it a name existed is unknown. 7 Continuing Ermine Street across the Humber.


Ⓘ Classis Britannica. The Classis Britannica was a provincial naval fleet of the navy of ancient Rome. Its purpose was to control the English Channel and the wate ..

The Classis Britannica was a provincial naval fleet of the navy of ancient Rome. Its purpose was to control the English Channel and the waters around the Roman province of Britannia. Unlike modern "fighting navies", its job was largely the logistical movement of personnel and support, and keeping open communication routes across the Channel.

There are no references in the classical historians Britannica classic with the same name, and archaeological data are also very scarce, although the CLBR stamped tiles are common along the East coast of Kent and in London, suggesting either a government building or an early instance of the army, this means that the details of its history and form, unfortunately, based on a large degree of interpretation.


Roman Britain’s Navy

In AD 69-70, the Rhine frontier was in tumult. The aftermath of Nero’s reign and suicide had left not just Rome in disarray. During the so-called `Year of the Four Emperors’, the civil war that convulsed Rome as multiple rivals tussled for the imperial throne, disaffected former allies rebelled. Notable among them was Gaius Julius Civilis, an auxiliary Roman officer and prince of the Batavi, a prominent Germanic tribe of the Rhine delta in what’s now the Netherlands.

Angered by Rome’s treatment of his tribe after years of stalwart service – including important contributions to the invasion and subjugation of Britain from AD 43 – Civilis launched a revolt, persuading other nearby Germanic tribes to join him.

After a number of battles and sieges, Civilis was subdued. Tacitus, who recounted the story in his Histories, describes how the Legio XIV Gemina (`Twinned 14th Legion’) was transported across from Britain to help the mopping-up operation. The legionary commander, Fabius Priscus, marched his troops to suppress the Nervii and Tungri tribes – and in doing so left his fleet exposed. The nearby Cannenefates tribe launched an assault, destroying or capturing most of the ships. And so the narrative of Britain’s maritime power – this being the first recorded mention of the Classis Britannica, the first navy of Britain – enters the historical record in ignominy.

First fleet

The Classis Britannica was the regional fleet of the Roman province of Britannia from the mid-first century to the mid-third century, one of 10 such fleets across the empire. These fleets originated with the Augustan reforms of the Roman military, replacing the larger ad-hoc fleets that had served Rome well during its earlier conflicts in the Mediterranean.

The Classis Britannica as a named body came into being shortly before the AD 69/70 Batavian Revolt described earlier. However, the origins of the fleet stretch back to the Claudian invasion of Britain in AD 43.

After the initial invasion, the fleet took part in every aspect of the subsequent expansion across the islands of Britain, eventually taking geographical responsibility for the Atlantic approaches, the English Channel, the east and west coast of Britain and the North Sea basin. As is clear from its deployment to Germany during the Batavian revolt, it was also given responsibility for protecting the north-west European coast, with its headquarters fortress at Boulogne. Less than two centuries later, the Classis Britannica disappears from the historical record the last known reference came in AD 249, relating to Saturninus, a North African-born captain.

During its existence, the Classis Britannica had more than one role. The commander of the British regional fleet was appointed directly by the emperor, and reported to the province’s procurator, who was tasked with making the province pay. So the fleet undertook civilian tasks – for example, running key industrial enterprises such as the principal iron-working sites in the coastal weald. It was, though, primarily a military force, and its martial duties fell under the aegis of the province’s governor. These military roles included controlling maritime zones around Britain, regular patrolling, gathering intelligence, transport, amphibious warfare and communications.

The chief fighting ship was the liburnian, a war galley equipped with ram and ballista. Being a small bireme (powered by two banks of oars), this was more agile than the larger polyreme galleys of the Republican navies. Numerous types of cutters and skiffs were also employed, as were a wide variety of transport ships. These were usually built in the Romano-Celtic tradition, with shallow hulls for navigating coastal waters, and high bows and sterns for riding out heavy seas.

The ships were manned by a fighting and sailing crew organised in a similar way to land counterparts. The sailing company comprised marines, valarius sailors and remiges oarsmen – professionals, not slaves. From the outset, the mix of men was cosmopolitan, reflecting the empire itself. The original fleet used in the Claudian invasion was built around a core of experienced men from the Classis Misinensis regional fleet in Italy later, most of its sailors and shipbuilders came from various European tribes – including the latterly rebellious Batavi.

During the Claudian invasion of AD 43, 900 ships were constructed to carry Aulus Plautius’s invasion force of 40,000 legionaries and auxiliaries in three waves across the English Channel. The fleet then supported the spearheads during the breakout from the invasion beaches of eastern Kent. It remained prominent in the final defeat of the Catuvellauni (who led the British resistance), and carried Claudius himself across from Gaul to take credit for the successful campaign.

The regional fleet then played a key role in the various conquest campaigns, an example being Vespasian and his Legio II Augusta (Augustus’s Second Legion) in south-west Britain during the late AD 40s. The Classis Britannica provided support during the future emperor’s relentless advance, providing the vital transport capability that enabled the land forces to leap ahead, objective by objective. After four seasons of campaigning, the southwest was fully conquered and the fleet, based in a series of new fortified harbours, was beginning to forge up into the Bristol Channel.

By the mid-AD 70s, the province was effectively established along lines recognisable for the rest of the occupation, with south and east fully functioning as part of the empire, and the north and west being a militarised border territory. With the northern border set along a line between the Solway Firth and the Tyne, later to be fortified under Hadrian, the scene was set for the Classis Britannica to again play a major campaigning role, this time under governor Gnaeus Julius Agricola, who made ambitious attempts to conquer Scotland.

Agricola arrived in Britain in AD 77 and, after a brief campaign in Wales, turned his attention northward. His targets were the native tribes of Scotland, broadly referred to as the Caledonians, and in the spring of AD 79 he launched his forces in that direction. This campaign featured the familiar pattern of coastal legionary spearheads on both the east and west coasts supported by the Classis Britannica, which controlled the sea close to the shore and fulfilled the supply and scouting roles.

The presence of the fleet was evidently a shock to the natives: in his Agricola, Tacitus reports that its galleys spread terror among the Caledonians. Agricola mounted four subsequent campaigns in the north, building military anchorages on the east and west coasts of Scotland and far north-west England to support the fleet. The fighting included a successful amphibious assault either north across the Solway Firth from Cumbria or west across the river Annan in Dumfries and Galloway, and in the fifth year of his campaign Agricola brought the natives to battle at Mons Graupius below the Moray Firth in the Grampians. The result: the total defeat of the Caledonians. The Classis Britannica then completed the first Roman circumnavigation of Britain.

Agricola was recalled to Rome some time before AD 85, after which the empire lost interest in the far north of Britain. The Classis Britannica spent much of the second century supporting the military presence on the northern border. It came to prominence again in AD 196 when the British governor Clodius Albinus launched an unsuccessful usurpation attempt against the emperor Septimius Severus. It appears that the Classis Britannica sided with Albinus – the fleet would have been needed to carry his troops to the continent – and so fell from imperial favour.

However, the fleet made a spectacular return to action in the early third century, when Severus attempted his own `shock and awe’ conquest of Scotland. At this time the Maeatae in central Scotland and Caledonians farther north had become so troublesome that the governor made a desperate request for new troops or for the emperor himself. He was lucky: he got both.

Imperial assault

In AD 208, Severus crossed the Channel with a huge imperial entourage including the Praetorian Guard and crack units from the continental legions. Carried by the Classis Britannica, this force landed at Richborough (near Sandwich in Kent), travelling north and collecting British legions en route to York, where Severus set up his imperial capital.

The emperor launched the first of two massive assaults northward in AD 209, deploying 50,000 men and massively expanding the fort and harbour at South Shields to act as his main supply base. As this enormous force headed north, the Classis Britannica again sat tight on the maritime flank, its galleys and transports surging ahead of the land forces to harry the natives and secure assault harbours. The regional fleet’s importance in this campaign is indicated by the number of coins featuring a naval theme issued at this time.

Once again, as the legionary spearheads probed northwards, fortified harbours at Cramond on the Forth and Carpow on the Tay were used. The campaign progressed steadily, though it is clear that the stream of casualties from guerilla warfare began to mitigate against Roman success. When it became obvious that the natives wouldn’t oblige with a meeting engagement, a truce was agreed and the emperor headed back to York with terms that met his satisfaction.

The terms clearly weren’t so agreeable to the natives, who revolted the following year, prompting Severus to plan a new campaign. Ill health got the better of him, and the advance was led by his son, Caracalla. This campaign, undertaken in AD 210, was especially brutal: Severus ordered his troops to kill all of the locals they encountered. Though the campaign again concluded without a major battle, it was ultimately successful in that peace fell on the northern border for a period of 80 years.

The navy vanishes

The campaigns of Severus marked a high point in the career of the Classis Britannica – though he himself died in York in AD 211. The fleet then found itself combatting a new menace in the form of Germanic maritime raiders travelling across the North Sea.

The fleet disappears from the historical record in the middle of the third century, but its fate is a mystery. A number of events offer explanations in each case the fleet was vulnerable, at some stage backing the wrong horse during the sometimes violent and dramatic changes in imperial leadership, and suffering as a result. One was the scramble for imperial control between senate and military after the assassination of Alexander Severus in AD 235, which initiated the `Crisis of the Third Century’. Another was the `Gallic Empire’ founded by Postumus that lasted from AD 260 to AD 274. Finally, there was the `North Sea Empire’ established by the usurper Carausius, which lasted from AD 286 to AD 296.

In my opinion, the most likely of these scenarios would have been in the context of the `Gallic Empire’, by which time it might also have been the case that the fleet was simply too expensive to maintain given the economic troubles of the empire. However it came about, we know that sometime in the middle of the third century Britain’s first navy disappeared – the end of a major fighting force that played a vital role in the story of Roman Britain.

The Roman war machine comprised land and naval forces. Although the former has been studied extensively, less has been written and understood about the naval forces of the Roman empire and, in particular, the regional navies which actively participated in most military operations and policed the seas and rivers of the Empire. Until the mid-third century, in a British context, this navy was the Classis Britannica—a strong fighting force in its own right. The composition, ship types, roles, tactics, and technology have never been studied at length. Here Simon Elliot tells the story of this illustrious naval force in their metal-beaked galleys and their exploits defeating enemies of the Empire and keeping the peace around the British Isles.

The Roman Navy was remarkable for its size, reach and longevity. As significant as the Royal Navy was to the British Empire in the nineteenth century, the Roman Navy was crucial to the extraordinary expansion of Imperial power and for its maintenance over a period of more than 800 years. The fabric and organisation of this maritime force is at the core of this new book.

So much has been written about the Roman army in Britain that the vital role of the navy – both in support of the army and in the defence of this distant Roman province – has been largely overlooked. In providing the first comprehensive account of the Roman navy’s importance in the conquest and defence of Britain, David Mason has redressed the balance. Combining archaeological evidence from recently excavated ships and harbour works with information from ancient sources, the author demonstrates the fleet’s vital importance to the success of the Roman military conquest. He also provides new insights into the logistics and tactics of the Roman naval forces and their close cooperation with the Roman army.


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Videoyu izle: BRITANNIC: PATRONESS OF THE MEDITERRANEAN - REAL TIME SINKING (Mayıs Ayı 2022).